## Formative Assessment and Bridging activities

Grade 1

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*These standards are bridging standards. Standards are considered a bridge when they: function as a bridge to which other content within the grade level/course is connected; serve as prerequisite knowledge for content to be addressed in future grade levels/courses; or possess endurance beyond a single unit of instruction within a grade level/course.

## Standard 1.1A

Standard 1.1a Count forward orally by ones to 110, starting at any number between 0 and 110.

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Understanding the Learning Trajectory

Big Ideas:

Rote counting is a prerequisite skill for addition and subtraction (one more, one less). Each successive counting number describes a quantity that is one more than the quantity that the previous number describes. In a sense, then, counting is adding: Each counting number adds one more to the previous collection.[LT]2 Facilitator Guide: Counting

Noticing patterns in numbers is helpful when counting. (Clements, D.H., & Sarama, J [2017/2019])

Understanding groups of ten can help students stay on track when counting.

Math Strength Instructional Video

Important Assessment Look-fors:

Student follows number patterns to count forward by 1s.

Student moves through decade numbers with ease (e.g., 29, 30, 31).

Student corrects mistakes.

Purposeful Questions:

What patterns do you notice with counting?

What comes after 8? How can that help you get past 28?

Think about what you just said. How can that help you move on?

### Student Strengths

Orally count to 100 by 1s, starting at any number.

The child will count with understanding and use numbers to tell how many, describe order, and compare.

### Bridging Concepts

Counts accurately beyond 100 [to 110], recognizing the patterns of ones, tens, and hundreds ### Standard 1.1A

Count forward orally by ones to 110, starting at any number between 0 and 110 .### Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

### Formative Assessments:

### Routines:

### Rich Tasks:

Game/Tech:

Race to 100 (see teacher notes for the adapted version)↗

## Standard 1.1B

Standard 1.1B Write numerals 0 to 110 in sequence/out-of-sequence.

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Understanding the Learning Trajectory

Big Ideas:

Initially, students begin counting at 1, but eventually progress to counting on from any number and keeping track of their counting using patterns (Clements, D.H., & Sarama, J [2017/2019]).

The patterns in the ones, tens, and hundreds help students count accurately (Clements, D.H., & Sarama, J [2017/2019]).

Students progress from reading two-digit numbers as individual digits (ex: they read “23” as (two-three) to a beginning understanding of place value (ex: knowing the 2 in “23” represents 2 tens, or twenty, and read the number as “twenty-three”)

Important Assessment Look-fors:

Student correctly continues the number pattern.

Student generally forms numbers correctly and can read their own writing.

Student uses number patterns to help write missing numbers in a sequence.

Student recalls and writes a number when it is said orally.

Purposeful Questions:

What do you notice about the pattern?

Would counting forward or backward help you?

Where might there be a decade/tens number to help get you on track?

### Student Strengths

Students can orally count to 100.

Students can write numbers to 20.

Students can identify one more and one less.

### Bridging Concepts

Students can Identify patterns in counting and writing number strings.

Student can start counting and writing in the middle of a string of numbers based on given information.

### Standard 1.1B

Students can write numerals 0 to 110 in sequence/out-of-sequence. ### Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

### Formative Assessments:

VDOE Quick Check 1.1B (PDF)↗

### Routines:

### Rich Tasks:

### Games:

Back to top ↗

## Standard 1.1c

Standard 1.1c Count backward orally by ones when given any number between 1 and 30.

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Understanding the Learning Trajectory

Big Ideas:

Counting backward by rote lays the foundation for subtraction (VDOE curriculum framework)

Counting forward and backward leads to the development of counting on and counting back. (VDOE curriculum framework)

Counting backward by ones helps students in the counting phase move to a transitional phase in which they use base ten representations to aid subtraction. (OGAP)

Important Assessment Look-fors:

Student follows number patterns to count backward by 1s.

Student moves through decade numbers with ease (22, 21, 20, 19)

Student states number before when given a number out of order.

Student corrects mistakes.

Purposeful Questions:

What patterns do you notice when counting?

What comes before 9? How can that help you count backwards from 29?

Why do you think it is important for us to say “zero” when we finish counting backwards?

### Student Strengths

The student will count backward orally by one when given any number between 1 and 10

The student will count forward by ones from 0 to 100

### Bridging Concepts

Students can identify the number before, without counting, when given any number between 1 and 30.

Students can count backward orally by ones when given any number between 1 and 20.

Students can count backward by ones when given the exact number of manipulatives to remove as he or she counts.

### Standard 1.1c

Students can count backward orally by ones when given any number between 1 and 30.### Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

- Bridging for Math Strength Standard 1.1c ↗ (START HERE)

### Formative Assessments:

### Routines:

### Rich Tasks:

### Games:

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## Standard 1.1d

Standard 1.1D Count forward orally by ones, twos, fives, and tens to determine the total number of objects to 110.

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Understanding the Learning Trajectory

Big Ideas:

One-to-one correspondence is crucial to success with counting. Sometimes students can rote count without one-to-one correspondence.

Skip counting is a way to count a group of objects quickly and efficiently; leads to algebraic thinking (Clements, D.H., & Sarama, J [2017/2019]).

Skip counting can strengthen estimation skills by practicing repeated addition (Clements, D.H., & Sarama, J [2017/2019]).

Important Assessment Look-fors:

Student uses and identifies a pattern to skip count.

Student accurately skip counts.

Student attempts a skip counting strategy before counting by ones.

Student sees efficiency in skip counting and utilizes it in real world situations.

Purposeful Questions:

What strategies do you know to help skip count?

Can you get a running start to help you figure out what the next number might be?

How can you use ones to help you skip count?

### Student Strengths

Students can count forward to 100 by 1s.

Students can skip count by 10s to 100.

Students can recognize benchmark numbers like 5, 10 and use tools like fingers, ten frames and hundreds chart to count orally.

### Bridging Concepts

Students can skip count by 5s, connecting to 10s pattern.

Students can skip count by 2.

### Standard 1.1D

Students can count forward orally by ones, twos, fives, and tens to determine the total number of objects to 110 .### Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

### Formative Assessments:

### Routines:

### Rich Tasks:

### Games/Tech:

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## Standard 1.2a

Standard 1.2A Group a collection into tens/ones and write the corresponding numeral.

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Understanding the Learning Trajectory

Big Ideas:

Each digit in our number systems has a place and a value.

A collection can be grouped into tens and ones (Clements, D. H., & Sarama, J.[2017/2019]).

A group of 10 can be counted as one unit of ten.

Important Assessment Look-fors:

Student makes groups of ten.

Student uses groups of ten to determine the value of a collection rather than counting by ones.

Student writes the number corresponding to a collection of objects.

Student demonstrates understanding of the value of the digit in the tens place as meaning that many groups of ten, and the value of the digit in the ones place as being that many ones.

Purposeful Questions:

Did you make groups? Can you tell me how you grouped your cubes?

What do these leftover cubes represent?

How does the number that you counted connects to the number of cubes you have?

How do you know the value of __ based on the place that it’s in?

### Student Strengths

Students can tell how many are in a set of 20 or fewer by counting orally.

Students read, write, and represent numbers 0-20.

Students can count forward orally by ones 0 to 100.

Students can count forward orally by tens, starting at 0, to determine a total number of objects to 100.

### Bridging Concepts

Students can make a group of ten that represents one set of ten.

Students can write the corresponding numeral for collections of tens.

Students can identify the place and value for each digit in a two digit number.

Students can identify the number of tens and ones that can be made from any number up to 100.

### Standard 1.2A

Students can group a collection into tens and ones and write the corresponding numeral.### Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

### Formative Assessments:

VDOE Quick Check 1.2A (PDF) ↗

### Routines:

### Rich Tasks:

### Games/Tech:

Back to top ↗

## Standard 1.2B

Standard 1.2B Compare two numbers between 0 and 110 represented pictorially or with concrete objects, using the words greater than, less than or equal to.

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Understanding the Learning Trajectory

Big Ideas:

Greater than is more, less than is fewer, and equal to means the same as.

Concrete models, pictorial models, and written numbers can be compared by deciding which has a higher value.

The digit in the tens place is more important when determining the size of a two digit number (Common Core Writing Team, 2019, pg 6).

Math Strength Instructional Video↗

Important Assessment Look-fors:

Student understands and can use the terms less than, greater than, and equal to.

Student uses the model to determine how many are in each set.

Student recognizes each tens block as a unit of ten when counting.

Student determines that the tens place is more important than the ones place when determining which value is greater.

Purposeful Questions:

What do you notice about the two sets of blocks?

How can you decide which set has more?

Which numbers helped you decide how to compare the two?

### Student Strengths

Students can compare and describe a set as having more, fewer, or the same number of objects as another set.### Bridging Concepts

Students can represent two digit numbers pictorially.

Students can count and represent numbers from 100-110.

Students can correctly use the words greater than, less than, and equal to.

### Standard 1.2B

Students can compare two numbers between 0 and 110 represented pictorially or with concrete objects, using the words greater than, less than or equal to. ### Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

### Formative Assessments:

### Routines:

### Rich Tasks:

### Games:

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## Standard 1.2c

Standard 1.2C Order three or fewer sets from least to greatest and greatest to least.

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Understanding the Learning Trajectory

Big Ideas:

The digit in the tens place is more important when determining the size of a two digit number (Common Core Core Progressions, 2019).

Least to greatest means smallest to largest, and greatest to least means largest to smallest.

Conceptual subitizing by place value and multiplicative thinking allow students to use the base-10 system to describe quantities and order them. Learning Trajectory Information↗

Math Strength Instructional Video ↗

Important Assessment Look-fors:

Student determines the value of two images and compares them.

Student represents numbers with pictures using groups of tens and ones.

Student uses the tens place to compare and determine the larger or smaller of two numbers.

Student sees the groups of ten and the group of ones in any number up to 110.

Purposeful Questions:

What do you notice about these two pictures?

Tell me about your representations for each number.

How did you decide which order you wanted to write the numbers?

### Student Strengths

Students can compare and order three or fewer sets, each set containing 10 or fewer concrete objects, from least to greatest and greatest to least.### Bridging Concepts

Students can compare sets up to 110 objects.

Students can understand and use the terms least to greatest and greatest to least.

### Standard 1.2C

Students can order three or fewer sets from least to greatest and greatest to least.### Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

### Formative Assessments:

### Routines:

### Rich Tasks:

### Games:

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## Standard 1.3

Standard 1.3 When given an ordered set of ten objects and/or pictures, indicate the ordinal position of each object, first through tenth.

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Understanding the Learning Trajectory

Big Ideas:

An understanding of the cardinal and ordinal meanings of numbers is necessary to quantify, measure, and identify the order of objects.

The ordinal meaning of numbers is developed by identifying and verbalizing the place or position of objects in a set or sequence (VDOE curriculum framework)

An ordinal counter is someone who can identify and use ordinal numbers from first to tenth. Ordinal counters can also make connections to counting words. For example, if you are fifth in line, you are number 5 in line. (Clements, D. H., & Sarama, J.)

Important Assessment Look-fors:

Student can identify where to start when counting, indicating they know left, right, top, and bottom.

Student can match the correct ordinal position with the cardinal numbers.

Student can place the correct drawing or notation in the correct spot indicating they understand ordinal number placement.

Purposeful Questions:

How did you know which person was first in line? How did you know which box was first?

Count the people. What number person in line is third?

How did you know which box needed a heart?

### Student Strengths

Students can count a set of objects and/or pictures 0-10

Students can label two-step directions or two-item sets as first and next.

### Bridging Concepts

Students can determine where a set starts or the sequence of objects.

Students can orally match the ordinal terms (first, second, third, fourth, etc) to the cardinal counterpart.

Students understand and can use the vocabulary words left, right, top, and bottom.

### Standard 1.3

Students can indicate the ordinal position of each object, first through tenth, in an ordered set of ten objects and/or pictures.### Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

### Formative Assessments:

VDOE Quick Check 1.3↗ (PDF)

VDOE Quick Check 1.3↗ (Desmos)

### Routines:

### Rich Tasks:

### Games:

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## Standard 1.4ab

Standard 1.6 The student will,

a) Represent and solve practical problems involving equal sharing with two or four sharers; and

b) Represent and name fractions for halves and fourths, using models.

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Understanding the Learning Trajectory

Big Ideas:

Fractional parts are equal shares or equal-sized portions of a whole or unit. (Van de Walle, 2006)

Fractional parts have special names that tell how many parts of that size are needed to make the whole. (Van de Walle, 2006)

Equipartitioning, or equal sharing, leads students to a foundational understanding of fractions, ratios, multiplication, and division.

Equipartitioning helps students understand that numbers are made of smaller parts.

Important Assessment Look-fors:

The student can divide the item into equal parts depending on the number of sharers.

The student can name the shares as halves or fourths. (Does not need to be written numerically.)

The student can represent equal sharing with multiple items and two or four sharers.

Purposeful Questions:

What does it mean if the cookie is shared fairly?

How did you divide the circle so that each friend could have their fair share?

How can you share cookies and brownies so that no cookies or brownies are leftover?

### Student Strengths

The student will investigate fractions by representing and solving practical problems involving equal sharing with two sharers.

### Bridging Concepts

Students can use and understand the vocabulary for halves and fourths.

Students can utilize equipartitioning with halves on a model (See LT website as Shape Equipartitioner)

### Standard 1.4ab

Students can -represent and solve practical problems involving equal sharing with two or four sharers; and-represent and name fractions for halves and fourths, using models.### Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

### Formative Assessments:

### Routines:

### Rich Tasks:

### Games:

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## Standard 1.5ab

Standard 1.5 The student will

a) Select a reasonable order of magnitude from three given quantities: a one-digit numeral, a two-digit numeral, and a three-digit numeral (e.g., 5, 50, 500); and

b) Explain the reasonableness of the choice.

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Understanding the Learning Trajectory

Big Ideas:

Exploring ways to estimate the number of objects in a set, based on appearance, enhances the development of number sense. (VDOE curriculum framework)

Relationships of numbers to real-world quantities and measures and the use of numbers in simple estimations can help children develop the flexible, intuitive ideas about numbers that are most desired. (Van de Walle, 2006)

Important Assessment Look-fors:

The student can select a reasonable order of magnitude.

The student can base their selection on the number of items rather than the amount of space the objects take up indicating a truer understanding of magnitude.

The student can demonstrate an understanding of number conservation by selecting the correct magnitude even when the order of objects seems to move.

Purposeful Questions:

How do you choose which number to match to the sunflowers?

How do you know when an estimate is too small or too big?

How did you know where to place each card of 5, 50, or 500?

### Student Strengths

Students understand and use conservation of number when counting up to 100.

Students understand and use conservation of area when counting.

Students can compare and describe one set as having more, fewer, or the same number of objects as the other set(s).

### Bridging Concepts

Students have experiences with sets of objects ranging from 1 digit quantities to 3 digit quantities.

Students can estimate the number of objects in a set based upon appearance such as clustering, grouping, and comparing.

### Standard 1.5ab

Students can select a reasonable order of magnitude from three given quantities: a one-digit numeral, a two-digit numeral, and a three-digit numeral (e.g., 5, 50, 500); and explain the reasonableness of the choice.### Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

### Formative Assessments:

### Routines:

### Rich Tasks:

### Games:

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## Standard 1.6

Standard 1.6 Create and solve single-step story and picture problems using addition and subtraction within 20.

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Understanding the Learning Trajectory

Big Ideas:

Story problems provide an opportunity to act out and reason through what is happening and what needs to be determined (i.e., which part is unknown).

There are numerous strategies that work together to develop fluency with operations and efficiency in problem solving (i.e., one more/one less, doubles, make ten, using related facts, etc.)

Various representations may be used to model and solve the same problem: spoken words (act it out), moving objects and manipulatives, drawing pictorial models, and writing number sentences.

A number sentence is one way of representing the action (or operation) used to solve a problem. Every problem has an action that translates to an operation (Van de Walle et. al., 2018).

Important Assessment Look-fors:

Student represents a story problem with an appropriate number sentence.

Student uses an appropriate strategy (i.e., picture, number sentence, talk-aloud, fingers, etc.) to make sense of the problem.

Student identifies and uses an appropriate action to solve the problem.

Student identifies the unknown part (i.e., start, change, result).

Purposeful Questions:

What strategy did you use to solve? What are some strategies you know?

What’s the action in the story? What is happening?

What part of the story is missing? What are we trying to find out?

### Student Strengths

Students can represent addition and subtraction story problems within 10.

Students can recognize, describe, and utilize part/whole relationships through 10 to solve single-step problems.

Students can count to 20 and beyond.

### Bridging Concepts

Students can recognize, describe, and utilize part/whole relationships through 20.

Students can use strategies like counting on from a larger number.

Students can select, utilize, and explain strategies to solve various types of problems.

### Standard 1.6

Students can create and solve single-step story and picture problems using addition and subtraction within 20. ### Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

### Formative Assessments:

### Routines:

### Rich Tasks:

### Games:

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## Standard 1.7a

Standard 1.7a Recognize and describe with fluency part-whole relationships for numbers to 10.

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Understanding the Learning Trajectory

Big Ideas:

Subitizing skills and visual recognition of numbers up to 5 facilitate learning combinations to 10.

A quantity (whole) can be decomposed into equal or unequal parts; the parts can be composed to form the whole (Erikson Institute’s Early Math Collaborative).

Quantities represented by numbers can be decomposed (or composed) into part-whole relationships (NCTM Number and Numeration, p.25).

Important Assessment Look-fors:

Student demonstrates conservation of number by “holding onto” the original number of objects.

Student uses a strategy (i.e., fingers, counting backwards, adding up, doubles, etc.) to figure out how many counters are hidden.

Student recognizes with ease the quantity of small groups of objects (up to five).

Student shows beginning understanding of the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction (i.e., 6-2=4, 4+2=6).

Student draws on solutions already made (in prior problems) to answer further questions.

Purposeful Questions:

What strategy can you use to find the missing number?

How many did you start with? How has that changed?

What small group do you see? How is that related to the total?

### Student Strengths

Students can recognize and describe part-whole relationships to 5.

Students easily recognize (subitize) sets up to 5.

### Bridging Concepts

Students can recognize partners (complements) of 10, and patterns within partners of 10.

### Standard 1.7a

Students can recognize and describe with fluency part-whole relationships for numbers to 10. ### Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

### Formative Assessments:

### Routines:

### Rich Tasks:

### Games/Tech:

Desmos-1.7 Numbers to Ten↗

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## Standard 1.7b

Standard 1.7B Demonstrate fluency with addition and subtraction within 10.

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Understanding the Learning Trajectory

Big Ideas:

Flexible methods can be used when adding and subtracting.

Composing and decomposing numbers build understanding and flexibility with number.

Part-whole relationships are foundational to developing computational fluency.

Fluency leads to efficiency by allowing students to recall basic facts when solving more complex problems (Common Core Progressions, p. 4).

Important Assessment Look-fors:

Student sees a total of 10, broken into two parts.

Student uses flexible strategies to determine the number of dots/counters (5 and 3 more makes 8, counts backward from 10 to make 8).Student writes a complete number sentence to represent a problem.

Student composes and decomposes numbers to 10 with ease.

Purposeful Questions:

Tell me about the strategy you are using. How did it help you to solve the problem?

How can this model help you when counting?

When you first look at this card/ten frame, how many do you see? How do you see it?

Can you represent that with a number sentence? What would it look like?

### Student Strengths

Represent addition and subtraction story problems within 10.

Recognize, describe, and utilize part/whole relationships through 10 to solve single-step problems.

Count to 20 and beyond.

### Bridging Concepts

Recognize, describe, and utilize part/whole relationships through 20.

Select, utilize, and explain strategies to solve various types of problems.

### Standard 1.7b

### Demonstrate fluency with addition and subtraction within 10.

### Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

### Formative Assessments:

VDOE Math Strength Assessment 1.7b↗ (Seesaw)

VDOE Quick Check 1.7B (PDF) ↗

### Routines:

### Rich Tasks:

### Games/Tech:

## Standard 1.8

Standard 1.8 Determine the value of a collection of like coins (pennies, nickels, or dimes) whose total value is 100 cents or less.

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Understanding the Learning Trajectory

Big Ideas:

Counting money is an exercise in unitizatizing, the concept that a group of objects can be counted as one unit (e.g., 10 pennies can be counted as one dime.) (VDOE curriculum framework)

Counting money helps students gain an awareness of consumer skills and the use of money in everyday life. (VDOE curriculum framework)

Skip counting can be used to determine the value of a set of like coins and can serve to build the foundation for multiplication.

Important Assessment Look-fors:

The student demonstrates one to one correspondence up to 100 items.

The student can make groups of five and/or tens and count the groups by skip counting.

The student can recall the value of a penny, nickel, and dime.

Purposeful Questions:

Why do you think skip counting by groups of 5 or 10 is easier than counting each coin?

What tools would make it easier for you to count? a hundreds chart? tens frame? How would those tools help you?

How do you know what a penny, nickel, and dime are worth?

### Student Strengths

The student will recognize the attributes of a penny, nickel, dime, and quarter and identify the number of pennies equivalent to a nickel, a dime, and a quarter.

### Bridging Concepts

The student will skip count by fives and tens up to 100.

The student will understand that the value of a coin is not related to its size.

### Standard 1.8

Students can determine the value of a collection of like coins (pennies, nickels, or dimes) whose total value is 100 cents or less.### Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

### Formative Assessments:

VDOE Quick Check SOL 1.8 PDF↗

VDOE Quick Check 1.8↗ (Google Slides)

### Routines:

### Rich Tasks:

### Games/Tech:

Desmos-1.8 Money↗

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## Standard 1.9a

Standard 1.9a Tell time to hour and half-hour, using analog and digital clocks.

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Understanding the Learning Trajectory

Big Ideas:

Time cannot be seen, but it can still be measured. Time is the duration of an event from its beginning to its end. (Van De Walle, Teaching Student Centered Mathematics, K-3)

Telling time is related to reading the instrument of a clock rather than measuring time. The numbers on a clock represent the time in that moment.

We can communicate our measures of time in units of hours and half hours.

Important Assessment Look-fors:

Student recognizes analog and digital clocks as instruments to tell the current time.

Student distinguishes between the hour hand and the minute hand on the analog clock and between the two sides of the digital clock.

Student uses the vocabulary words “hours” and “o’clock”.

Student is able to read the time on the clock to the nearest hour and half-hour.

Purposeful Questions:

What does it mean to “tell time?”

Can you explain how to use the arrows/hands on an analog clock to tell time?

How does the time change if the hour hand is moved?

What do the numbers on a digital clock mean? How do you know?

### Student Strengths

Students can recognize the numbers 1-12.

### Bridging Concepts

Students can recognize the number 30.

Students recognize the role of each of the hands on an analog clock.

Students understand that half an hour means one of two parts has passed.

### Standard 1.9a

Students can tell time to hour and half-hour, using analog and digital clocks.### Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

Bridging for Math Strength Standard 1.9a↗ (START HERE)

### Formative Assessments:

### Routines:

### Rich Tasks:

### Games/Tech:

Desmos-1.9a Telling Time↗

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## Standard 1.9b

Standard 1.9b Read and interpret a calendar.

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Understanding the Learning Trajectory

Big Ideas:

Calendars are instruments used to represent units of time.

Calendars help students understand the concept of a day as a 24-hour period rather than the hours between sunrise and sunset.

Reading a calendar is a practical application of counting principles as applied to real world scenarios and the ability to communicate the passage of time or future events to others.

Important Assessment Look-fors:

Students can accurately identify the day of the week.

Students can distinguish between the day of the week and the date of a day.

Students understand that they are to count the boxes holding a number that represents a date when counting the number of Mondays rather than simply counting five boxes underneath the Monday heading.

Purposeful Questions:

What is the difference between the day of the week and the date of a day?

What information is important when naming the date of a day?

Why do you think there are more Thursdays than Mondays on this calendar?

### Student Strengths

Students can investigate the passage of time by reading and interpreting a calendar.

Name the twelve months of the year.

Name the seven days in a week.

Determine the day before and after a given day (e.g., yesterday, today, tomorrow).

### Bridging Concepts

Students can name the date of a specific day in time.

Students can identify a specific date in time on a calendar.

### Standard 1.9b

Students can read and interpret a calendar.- Read a calendar to locate a given day or date (e.g., What day of the week is the 10th? What date is Saturday?).
- Determine the day/date before and after a given day/date (e.g., Today is the 30th, so yesterday must have been the __?).
- Given a calendar, determine the number of any day of the week (e.g., How many Fridays are in the month of October?)

### Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

Bridging for Math Strength Standard 1.9b↗ (START HERE)

### Formative Assessments:

VDOE Quick Check SOL 1.9b ↗ (PDF)

VDOE Quick Check 1.9b↗ (Desmos)

### Routines:

### Rich Tasks:

Calendar Sorting

### Games/Tech:

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## Standard 1.10

Standard 1.10 Use nonstandard units to measure and compare length, weight, and volume.

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Understanding the Learning Trajectory

Big Ideas:

Measurement involves a comparison of an attribute of an item or situation with a unit that has the same attribute. Lengths are compared to units of length, areas to units of area, time to units of time, and so on. Before anything can be measured meaningfully, it is necessary to understand the attribute to be measured. (Van de Walle, 2006)

Measuring with nonstandard units allows students practice in laying objects end to end without gaps or spacing. This also grow the understanding that the unit of measure must be same size when comparing objects.

Measuring and comparing volume helps students understand that a space must be filled or occupied.

Important Assessment Look-fors:

The student can use a nonstandard unit end to end without overlapping or leaving gaps.

The student will use the same size unit to measure both objects in each section.

The student can accurately count the number of unit equal to the length, weight, or volume of the objects demonstrating one to one correspondence.

Purposeful Questions:

How do you choose the unit you use to measure objects?

How does a balance or pan scale help you measure weight?

How did you decide which container holds more?

### Student Strengths

The student will compare two objects as longer/shorter, heavier/lighter, and more/less.

### Bridging Concepts

Students can use the same nonstandard unit to measure two objects.

Students measure by repeating (iterating) a single unit and understands the need for equal-length unit (See LT website Unit relater and iterator)

Students can match a nonstandard unit to length, weight, and volume.

### Standard 1.10

Students can use nonstandard units to measure and compare length, weight, and volume.### Full Module with Instructional Tips & Resources:

Bridging for Math Strength Standard 1.10↗ (START HERE)

### Formative Assessments:

VDOE Quick Check SOL 1.10 ↗ (PDF)

VDOE Quick Check 1.10↗ (Google Slides)

### Routines:

### Rich Tasks:

### Games/Tech:

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## Standard 1.11ab

Standard 1.11ab The student will

a) identify, trace, describe, and sort plane figures (triangles, squares, rectangles, and circles) according to number of sides, vertices, and angles; and

b) identify and describe representations of circles, squares, rectangles, and triangles in different environments, regardless of orientation, and explain reasoning.

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Understanding the Learning Trajectory

Big Ideas:

Building geometric and spatial capabilities fosters enthusiasm for mathematics while providing a context to develop spatial sense.

What makes shapes alike and different can be determined by an array of geometric properties. (Van de Walle, 2006)

Shapes and properties includes a study of the properties of shapes in both two and three dimensions, as well as a study of the relationships built on properties. (Van de Walle, 2006)

Important Assessment Look-fors:

The student knows and can use the correct names of shapes.

The student knows and can use the terms sides, vertices, and angles.

The student can describe the circle as curved or round.

The student describe and recognize shapes regardless of their orientation.

Purposeful Questions:

What can you tell me about the angles of different shapes?

When you are sorting shapes, how do you decide how you will sort them?

When looking at the street signs what do you look for when naming the shapes?

### Student Strengths

The student can

identify and describe plane figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle)

compare the size (smaller, larger) and shape of plane figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle)

describe the location of one object relative to another (above, below, next to) and identify representations of plane figures (circle, triangle, square, and rectangle) regardless of their positions and orientations in space.

### Bridging Concepts

Students can identify plane figures based upon a description of characteristics rather than an image of the figure.

Students understand specific characteristics of plane figures such as squares and rectangles have special angles called right angles and circles are curved.